another commemorative postmark related with psychology.
Expansion and international collaboration (1960–1965)
The creation of the Union, the improved organization of international congresses, the larger international participation, and the enthusiasm of the participants of the 14th and 15th congresses, particularly the one in Brussels, all contributed to the enhancement of psychologists’ confidence in the scientific character of their discipline. In spite of poor financial means at their disposal, the elected officials of the Union succeeded in gradually expanding the collaboration of international organizations as well as of member societies. There was still a long way to go, but progress was being made. The Executive Committee started to meet regularly between congresses in view of the increasing volume of Union activities and the need to monitor many issues closely. It was also necessary to frequently amend the Statutes of the Union to adapt to changes brought about by rapid growth.
The 16th International Congress of Psychology, Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany, 1960
As noted earlier, by the end of the 15th congress the Union had not received any invitation from a member society to host the 16th congress. The Executive Committee had been instructed to come to a decision at the earliest possible time.
In September 1957, the German Society of Psychology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Psychologie) sent an invitation to the Union to hold its forthcoming congress in the Federal Republic of Germany. Sixty-four years had passed since the last meeting had taken place in a German-speaking country. The invitation was promptly accepted and the Executive Committee proposed that the congress be held under the presidency of Professor Johannes von Allesch of Göttingen. Eventually, for health reasons, von Allesch couldn’t assume the presidency (Montoro González, 1982 , p. 235). The 16th congress was held in Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany, from July 31 to August 6, 1960, under the presidency of Wolfgang Metzger, and the Honorary Presidency of Karl Bühler, who would have presided at the 12th congress if it had been held in Vienna in 1940 (Piéron, 1960 , p.620). Hans Thomae assumed the position of Secretary-General of the Congress, Udo Undeutsch acted as Treasurer, while Albert Wellek was in charge of the Program Committee.
|Wolfgang Metzger (1899–1979): President of the 16th International Congress of Psychology, Bonn, 1960.|
The sessions were held in the rooms of the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität and the Beethoven-Halle, in Bonn. Official governmental support was obtained from Gerhard Schroder, the Federal Minister of the Interior, from Werner Schutz, the Minister of Culture and Education of the Nordrhein-Westfalen State, from Max Braubach, Rector of the University of Bonn, and from the Lord Mayor of the City of Bonn, Wilhelm Daniels. The Minister of the Interior of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Minister of Cultural Affairs and Education of the State of Nordrhein-Westfalen also generously accepted to assume the costs of the publication of the proceedings of the congress, in collaboration with the IUSP. These proceedings were published in 1962 by North-Holland, but also as a special issue of the journal Acta Psychologica, similarly to the 15th congress.
Organization of the congress
The organization fell under the joint responsibility of the IUSP and the German Society of Psychology. Therefore the General Organizing Committee was composed of members appointed by both the IUSP and the German Society of Psychology, as can be seen in Table 8.1 .
The number of participants (1833, out of which 1116 were regular members) was greater than the number at the Brussels congress. For the first time in its history, the congress organization made use of modern technical facilities, such as simultaneous translation. All addresses, presentations, and discussions of the general meetings and, to some extent, of the individual meetings, were simultaneously translated into the three official languages of the congress—English, French, and German.
An informal welcoming ceremony by the Honorary President, the President, the Chair of the Program Committee, and the Secretary-General took place in the Beethoven-Halle on July 31, the night preceding the official opening, and it was followed by a reception. The opening ceremonies on the morning of August 1 began with the presentation of the well-known Toccata and Fugue in D-minor for Organ of Johann Sebastian Bach, and was followed by brief welcoming remarks from the President of the Congress, the Federal Minister of the Interior, the Minister of Cultural Affairs and Education of Nordrhein-Westfalen, the Rector of the University of Bonn, the Lord Mayor of the City of Bonn, as well as the President and the Secretary-General of the IUSP. The President of the congress, Wolfgang Metzger, then read his opening address (“Homage to Gustav Theodor Fechner”) in recognition of the centennial of the publication of Fechner’s well-known book “Elements of Psychophysics”. He was followed by the Honorary President, Karl Bühler, who gave the presidential address (“Gestalt in the lives of men and animals”).
Organizational structure of the 16th International Congress of Psychology (Bonn, 1960)
The Program Committee, under the chairmanship of Wellek, had its first preparatory meeting in Louvain in April 1959 together with some of the Brussels congress organizers. As had been done for the Brussels congress, the national psychological associations that were members of the Union, certain psychology departments and institutes of higher learning in various countries, as well as individual scholars, were asked to propose topical subjects. Out of these suggestions, 20 principal themes emerged, each to be treated in a symposium and, depending on the importance of the subject, by one or more discussion speakers (see Table 8.2). Individual presentations related to each main theme were also encouraged in order to address broader aspects. Because of the wide variety of individual papers submitted, eight more themes were added. Three public evening lectures were also added to the program, as well as four colloquia on special professional and organizational problems. There were small group discussions with invited guests. A book and equipment exhibition was arranged. The participants could take advantage of various visits, excursions, and social receptions during the congress. The traditional closing banquet was replaced by a boat trip up the Rhine river to Linz, an old wine town near Neuwied.
Scientific program themes: 16th International Congress of Psychology (Bonn, 1960)
The following evening presentations were open to the general public:
- Paul Fraisse (France): “L’adaptation de l’homme au temps”
- Richard C. Oldfield (UK): “Listening, attending and speaking”
- Alexej N. Leontiev (USSR): “Le social et le biologique dans la mentalité de l’homme”
The colloquia dealt with the following issues:
- Social sciences, psychology, and mental health: The role of the psychologist in World Mental Health Year.
- Problems of cooperation between psychology and psychopathology.
- Means of international exchange among psychologists speaking different languages.
- The legal status and responsibility of psychologists in different countries.
In the summary account of the congress (Proceedings of the XVIth International Congress of Psychology, 1962 , p. XXVIII), we find the following conclusion, which synthesizes the significant contribution of the Bonn congress:
It is still too early to give a complete appreciation of the
success of the congress or to expect immediate practical
results from it, just as it was the case after the Brussels
Congress. Yet, there can be no doubt that the use of the latest
technical facilities, those mentioned above (i.e. simultaneous
translation) and the rotaprint method—at the beginning of
the Congress each participant was given two volumes
containing summary accounts of the talks—as well as the
record participation will be milestones in the history of the
International Congress and will certainly be conducive to
fruitfully shaping its progressive development, structure and
General Assembly, Bonn 1960
As was the case in Brussels 3 years before, the General Assembly of IUSP met during two sessions, just before and right after the congress.
Reports of the Officers
The first meeting of the Assembly was held on July 31. After the usual roll call, which indicated that delegates from national societies from 17 countries were present (Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, USSR, UK, and USA) as well as an observer, Dr N. Leites, of the Social Sciences Division of UNESCO, the meeting was opened by the President of the Union. After the adoption of the provisional agenda, Secretary-General Klineberg gave his report. He first mentioned the upcoming publication in German and Spanish of Perspectives in Personality Theory (Eds.: H. David & H. von Bracken) and the publication in English of Perspectives in Personality Research (Eds.: H. David & J.C. Brengelmann). He also indicated that H.C.J. Duijker had prepared for IUSP a trend report on “National Character and National Stereotypes” that would soon be published under the auspices of the International Committee for Social Science Information and Documentation. He further mentioned that the Union would be sponsoring (1) a symposium and research project on the origins and development of national stereotypes in children (conducted in 10 different countries by W.E. Lambert from Canada), (2) an attitude survey among young people on the peaceful uses of atomic energy, (3) a meeting in New York (in collaboration with UNESCO) on the use of psychological concepts in other social sciences. In view of the expected increase of UNESCO support, the Secretary-General suggested that there should be a meeting of the Executive Committee between congresses and that larger contributions should be available for the increasing activities of the Union.
Treasurer Mailloux presented his report on the Union’s financial status, which indicated a small, but favorable balance on hand, as well as a reserve fund of about US$5000 for support of international congresses. He raised the issue of nonpayment of annual dues to the Union and it was decided to consider this problem when revising the statutes. He announced an increase of the UNESCO grant to IUSP (US$6000 in 1961) and it was decided that the final general budget for 1961 should be prepared by the officers of the Union according to the following formula: approximately one third for administrative purposes, one third for activities of the Executive Committee, and one third for other activities of the Union.
Review of the Statutes
In the discussion that accompanied the presentation of a draft revision of the Statutes, the following points received particular attention: (1) it was voted to move certain items concerning ways in which the Union conducts its business to a new document entitled “Rules of Procedure”; (2) a proposal to remove the adjective “scientific” from the name of the Union was not accepted at that time, because there still remained in many countries the need to differentiate “scientific psychology” from other uses of “psychology,” but it was agreed to reconsider the issue in the future; (3) a proposal to change the representation of national societies on the IUSP Assembly by allowing a maximum of four representatives based upon the size of membership of a national society was not accepted, but the Revision Committee was asked to determine what should be the precise size of membership required for an appointment of two representatives; (4) the issue of whether or not the delegates should represent their personal views or the views of their national societies was resolved by adding the provision to the statutes that at least 3 months’ notice of the business to be transacted at a meeting of the General Assembly would be required in the future; all new issues, raised after this period, would be placed on the agenda only if supported by a two thirds majority vote of the delegates present; (5) in view of the fact that national societies were sometimes delinquent in the payment of their annual dues, the Ad Hoc Revision Committee was instructed to draft a statement regarding grounds for termination of membership; and (6) the Ad Hoc Committee was also instructed to draft a formal section in the Statutes recognizing the affiliations already voted upon at the last meeting.
During the next session, the Ad Hoc Committee appointed during the first session to redraft some of the revised statutes made its report. All its recommendations regarding the nature and aims of the Union, the affiliation, and its administration were approved. Questions were raised regarding the election of Executive Committee members. It was decided to fill vacancies on the Executive Committee between General Assemblies through a mail ballot vote, to have 8 of the 10 members chosen from among members of the Assembly, and that not more than 2 members of the Committee be from any one country. Adraft was presented of the new Rules of Procedure for the Assembly that included three major sections, i.e. organization of international congresses, subscriptions, and nominations. While the first and last sections were adopted unanimously, the second section, particularly the requirement for a vote of a two-thirds majority to alter the rate of subscriptions, caused considerable discussion and was finally adopted by a small majority.
Establishment of a Committee on Communication and Publications
On the issue of the publication of Psychological Abstracts that had been raised during the Brussels meeting, and more broadly speaking on the problems of international communications in scientific psychology, Russell presented a report in which he recommended the establishment by the Union of a Committee on Communication and Publications. This was approved unanimously by the Assembly, as was a motion to have each national society nominate one of its members to serve as an advisor to the editor of Psychological Abstracts.
Following the establishment in Brussels of a committee to advise on the desirability of preparing future editions of the International Directory of Psychologists, it was decided that future editions should appear at regular intervals of 3 years, that an editorial committee be established to oversee the production of this directory, that one or more editors be appointed by the Executive Committee to assume responsibility for each new edition, and that all national societies appoint someone responsible for supplying the information on their members.
Election of the Executive Committee
As stipulated in the Statutes, the Assembly proceeded with the elections. Klineberg was elected President, and Duijker, Vice-President. Those elected to the Executive Committee were: Drever, Fraisse, Leontiev, Mailloux, Nuttin, Piaget, Russell, Sato, Skard, and Westerlund.
The applications of South Africa, Mexico, and Venezuela for membership in the Union were considered. Whereas South Africa was turned down because barriers prevented the participation in the South African Society of psychologists of all races, those of Mexico and Venezuela, which had been received just prior to the congress, were postponed for lack of sufficient information, especially concerning the representativeness of the societies applying. A similar request by the International Council of Psychologists for affiliation with the Union was postponed.
Relations with the International Council of Scientific Unions
The relations with the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) and the difficulties encountered by the failures of applications for membership were discussed. It was believed that the two main reasons for these failures were (1) that ICSU is traditionally slow in granting approval of new memberships, and (2) that present members of ICSU were perhaps fearful that any new addition might decrease the level of funds available to ICSU members. It was nevertheless decided to reapply for admission in 1961, to ask Leonard Carmichael to represent IUSP in the formal discussion of this application, and to make clear to ICSU that IUSP would neither request financial support nor contribute financially to ICSU.
Choice of the venue for the next congress
The Assembly was pleased to accept an invitation from the American Psychological Association to hold the next International Congress of Psychology in the United States in 1963.
Executive Committee meeting, Bonn 1960
|Roger Russell (1914–1998): Secretary-General of the IUSP (1960–1966); President of the IUSP (1969–1972).|
The 1960 meeting of the Executive Committee was held in two sessions: one on July 31 and the second immediately following adjournment of the Assembly on August 6. The first session, termed “outgoing”, was devoted principally to discussion of items to be considered during the forthcoming Assembly, especially the changes in the Statutes.
At the second session, the incoming session, all newly elected members were present and the first item of business was the appointment of Russell as Secretary-General, Westerlund as Deputy Secretary-General, and Mailloux as Treasurer.
A discussion of the ways in which IUSP might better cooperate with UNESCO was held in the presence of a UNESCO observer, Dr Szczerba-Likiernik. Acertain number of specific projects involving both organizations were discussed and considered possible. Among these were the preparation of interdisciplinary trend reports, the organization of symposia or round-table conferences, technical assistance to economically underdeveloped countries, and assistance to university projects in Africa.
The discussion on the allocations of the 1961 budget for specific activities was introduced by the Treasurer and it was finally decided that the final figures would be decided by the President and the other officers of the Union.
In view of the Assembly’s decision to establish a Committee on Communication and Publications, it was decided that the following persons should be invited to serve as members of this new committee: L. Ancona, H.C.J. Duijker, P. Fraisse, A. Luria, A. Melton, J. Nuttin, R.W. Russell (ex-officio), K. Sato, A. Summerfield, G. Westerlund, and W. Witte. Duijker agreed to serve as the first chairman. A subcommittee composed of Eugene H. Jacobson and Arthur Summerfield was appointed to take responsibility for the preparation of the International Directory of Psychologists.
The desirability of holding a meeting of the Executive Committee at some convenient time between the 1960 and 1963 congresses was discussed, but no decision was taken.
Executive Committee meeting, Paris 1962
The Executive Committee meeting was held on July 9–11, 1962. It was attended by Drever, Duijker, Fraisse, Leontiev, Mailloux, Nuttin, Piaget, Russell, Sato, Skard, and Westerlund, and chaired by the President, Otto Klineberg.
After approving the minutes of the 1960 Executive Committee meeting in Bonn and reiterating that the members of the committee were not representing particular national societies, but were acting on their own behalf, the Secretary-General, Roger Russell, made a report in which he raised the following issues: membership requirements, Union representation, affiliation with ICSU, production of a newsletter, International Congress of Applied Psychology, and a full-time Executive Secretary.
Membership requirements and issues
In the light of the new statutory membership requirements adopted at the 1960 Assembly meeting, principles of membership in the Union were discussed, taking up the case of Brazil. It appeared that, in Brazil, there was a rivalry between several psychology societies and that it was not clear what criteria were used for the admission of members. The situation was further complicated by the fact that since Brazil’s election as a member in 1957, no dues had been received. It was decided to inform the Brazilian Society of the difficulties noted and to give them notice that, in accordance with the possibility of terminating their membership after nonpayment of three annual dues (Art. 9b of the Statutes), a decision to that effect would be taken at the 1963 Assembly meeting. It was also agreed that non-member national groups, and in particular India, China, Mexico, Austria, Thailand, and Romania, should be contacted by members of the Executive Committee to encourage them to apply for membership. For coordination purposes, the Secretary-General would be kept informed of all actions taken.
Two national societies, South Africa and Venezuela, which had recently applied for membership, were accepted, while the application of the Czechoslovakian Society was deferred to the 1963 Assembly meeting.
The Executive Committee approved terminating the membership of Cuba and Egypt in the Union.
Relations with other organizations
The Union was invited with increasing frequency to send a representative to various meetings of UNESCO and ISSC, as well as that of other organizations in whose activities the Union was interested. A general principle of representation was approved, whereby it was stipulated that the Union should be present at as many meetings as possible. Whenever possible, senior psychologists should be asked to serve as Union representatives. Joseph Nuttin was appointed as the new Union representative to the ISSC for a period of 3 years in place of Jean Piaget.
In the presence of Dr Szczerba-Likiernik, the Secretary-General of ISSC, Westerlund reported on his activities as representative to ISSC. The committee was pleased with the useful relations that had been established with ISSC and agreed that the relationship should be developed further. The recent changes in the ISSC statutes, which had resulted in ISSC becoming a “federation of societies in the social sciences,” were presented. It was noted that ISSC was becoming more interdisciplinary and more concerned with the promotion of research.
Miss de Franz, representing UNESCO, discussed her organization’s interest in projects in which the Union might be of assistance. Inter alia, UNESCO would be interested in exploring research methods and techniques applicable in demographic and statistical studies in countries that lacked such basic data, and second, it would also be interested in the development of good teaching materials for educational purposes in Africa. It was suggested that the Secretary-General should make an inventory of African psychologists involved in research or applied areas and that the Treasurer prepare a report on psychological aspects of problems of delinquency in newly developing countries.
A resolution had been circulated in advance by the Swiss Society of Psychology to all members of the committee regarding the possible role of the Union in international affairs. Comments would be requested from National Members on questions such as: (1) Should IUSP make a common approach to all governments and to the United Nations? (2) What kind of unique services can IUSP offer? (3) How should an approach to governments and the United Nations be made in order to maximize its success? (4) To what extent should IUSP consult with national societies regarding the details of their specific approaches? The Executive Committee, at its upcoming meeting in Washington in 1963, determined to examine the comments made by the members and organize a small working conference on these issues.
Concerning the ongoing efforts to have the Union admitted to ICSU, it was agreed to ask Leonard Carmichael (USA) to represent the Union in further contacts with ICSU with the assistance, if necessary, of Fraisse, Klineberg, and Piaget.
Although difficulties were experienced in receiving information from national societies, it was the view of the committee that the Newsletter, regardless of its completeness, should come out regularly, beginning with the 1962 Autumn issue.
Duijker reported on the activities of the Committee on Communication and Publications. The Executive Committee approved the following recommendations: (1) that an Ad Hoc International Committee should be established and composed of Piéron, Thomae, and Solman to assist with the preparation of the new Lexicon, and (2) that the feasibility should be explored of obtaining from national societies summaries in French or English of all articles published in psychology journals. The selection and translation of important articles from the non-English literature was also discussed. The status of the research project on “The Origin and Development of National Stereotypes” was discussed and it was expected that a final manuscript would be ready by 1963.
Planning of the next congress
Questions were raised concerning the considerable overlap between the programs of the last congresses of IUSP and IAAP, and leading to the recommendation that the possibility of coordinating the planning of both congresses should be explored.
The Executive Committee heard a report from Carl Pfaffmann on the American Psychological Association’s (APA) plans for the 1963 International Congress in Washington. The committee urged the APA to send out, at its earliest convenience, the information on the general organization of the congress so that all those interested in attending could make plans well in advance. It was recommended that the working languages of the congress should be French and English and that simultaneous translation should be provided. It was also recommended that presentation of papers should be permitted in German, Italian, Russian, and Spanish. APA’s novel idea of a “Young Psychologists’ Program” was very well received and it was decided unanimously that IUSP should provide a sum of US$500 as a token contribution to this program.
Regarding the international exchange of psychologists, a review was presented of the project originated by APA for the collection and dissemination of information on international opportunities for advanced training and research in psychology. The cooperation of IUSP in the conduct of the project had been approved by the Executive Committee in February 1962.
Review of Statutes
Issues were raised on the interpretation to be given to certain new IUSP Statutes. Although the Executive Committee was elected by the Assembly, its members did not serve as delegates of their national societies. After the proceedings and decisions of the Executive Committee were communicated to them by the Secretary-General, they should feel free to report back to the national society to which they belonged. Regarding the issue of voting by correspondence on elections to membership in the Union, two possible rules of procedure could be considered: (1) following a discussion at the Assembly, the President may approve a final vote by mail ballot, and (2) if a question is raised regarding a vote by correspondence, the issue could go to the Assembly for its consideration. Furthermore, regarding voting by correspondence, each mail ballot should contain three options: approve, disapprove, or postpone a decision until the next Assembly meeting.
Text from: http://e-book.lib.sjtu.edu.cn/iupsys/Hist/HBch08.htm